Japanischer Garten in Monaco

Japanischer Garten Monaco

Hast Du jemals einen authentischen japanischen Garten gesehen?
Nun, ich hatte die Chance, den in Monaco zu sehen und war auch wirklich beeindruckt. Willst Du ein bisschen japanische Kultur probieren? Wenn Du aus diesem Grund den Garten betrittst, fliehst Du aus der realen Welt in ein Phantasieland. Du befindest Dich plötzlich in einer typisch japanischen Natur wie in wunderbaren Gemälden. Das einzige, was fehlt, ist der Nebel. Stattdessen offenbart die Mittelmeersonne alle winzigen Details in einem warmen Licht.

Bei japanischen Gärten siehst Du nicht alles. Die Oberfläche der Dinge ist nur das Spiegelbild der Psyche einer alten Kultur. Man muss wirklich buchstäblich in dieser Richtung „kultiviert“ werden, um den Wert dieser Kunst am besten zu schätzen. (was ich selbst nicht zum Zeitpunkt meines Besuchs war! Und es war schade, da ich nicht wusste, wonach ich suchen sollte und was ich besser analysieren sollte!) Man kann von einer Gartenphilosophie sprechen, die aus dem alten Japan stammt. Japanische Gartenarbeit ist eine Kunst, die über die Arrangements von Vegetation, Wasser und Stein hinausgeht, aber voller Symbole ist: Koko – die Verehrung des zeitlosen Zeitalters; Shizen – die Vermeidung des Künstlichen; Yugen oder Dunkelheit – implizieren das geheimnisvolle oder subtile; Miegakure – die Vermeidung des vollen Ausdrucks Die Naturwahrnehmung unterscheidet sich in der japanischen Kultur von der europäischen. Anstatt die Natur nur als etwas zu betrachten, das nach dem vom Menschen geschaffenen Schönheitsideal zu unterwerfen und umzuwandeln ist, entwickelten die Japaner eine enge Verbindung zur Natur, die sie für heilig hält, als Verbündeter, wenn sie Essen auf den Tisch legen und ein Schönheitsideal für sich. Deshalb sind die japanischen Gärten die Synthese der Natur im Kleinen, anstatt die Natur zu korrigieren wie bei den europäischen Gärten. Eigentlich sind die japanischen Gärten nach chinesischem Vorbild gestaltet. Die Geschichte geht in die Zeit zurück, um das Jahr 100 v. Chr., Als der Kaiser von China, Wu Di aus der Han-Dynastie, einen Garten mit drei kleinen Inseln errichtete, die die Inseln der Unsterblichen nachahmen, die die wichtigsten taoistischen Gottheiten waren. Ein japanischer Gesandter sah es und brachte die Idee nach Japan, um die bestehenden japanischen Praktiken zu verbessern. Der japanische Garten von Monaco wurde auf Wunsch von Prinz Rainier entworfen, der damit einen Wunsch erfüllte, den Prinzessin Grace zu Lebzeiten geäußert hatte. Der von dem Landschaftsarchitekten Yasuo Beppu gestaltete Garten hat 7.000 Quadratmeter, der Bau dauerte 3 Jahre und wurde 1994 eingeweiht.
Spezifische Elemente Die Mauer (Heï) mit einem Bambuszaun (Takégaki), die für Zerbrechlichkeit und Schlichtheit steht. Das Haupttor (Shô-Mon) Die Steinlaternen (Tôrô) – jede hat besondere Eigenschaften. Der See (Iké) mit großen Goldfischen. Der Steinbrunnen (Fusen-Ishi) Die überdachte Terrasse (Kyukeïjo) Die Inseln (Shima) – repräsentieren zwei langlebige Tiere – die Schildkröte und den Kranich, Symbole der Komplementarität Das Teehaus (Chatshitsu) – benannte den Garten der Gnade (Ga-én) Die trockene Landschaft (Karésansui) – Quintessenz des Kosmos Das Belvedere (Azumaya) – ein Haus auf einem Hügel mit Blick in alle vier Ecken Der Wasserfall (Taki) – symbolisiert die Stärke von Mensch und Natur im Gegensatz zur Horizontalität des Sees. Die gewölbte rote Brücke (Taïkobashi) – ist rot, die Farbe des Glücks und schmal, um den Zugang zur göttlichen Insel zu erschweren. Es gibt Olivenbäume, Kirschbäume, Nadelbäume, Azaleen, Rhododendren und Kamelien, eine abwechslungsreiche, reiche Vegetation mediterraner, südamerikanischer, australischer, afrikanischer und asiatischer Herkunft, die nach japanischer Tradition beschnitten wird. Wenn Sie im vollbesessenen Monaco mit all seinem Stein, Stahl und Glas spazieren gehen, finden Sie im Japanischen Garten eine ruhige, grüne Oase, in der selbst viele Touristen unbemerkt auf den gewundenen Wegen durch das Dickicht des Gartens spazieren.

The Basics of Japanese Gardening

Things to keep in mind for a beautiful garden

Main principles on the garden’s design

Bring the Japanese feeling into your garden with these basic steps. First of all, embrace the ideal of nature. That means, keep things in your garden as natural as possible, avoiding to include things that could disrupt this natural appearance.

For example, don’t include square ponds in your design as square ponds are nowhere to be found in nature. Also, a waterfall would be something closer to what exists in nature if we compare it to a fountain.

So you also have to consider the Japanese concept of sumi or balance. Because one of Japanese gardening design main purposes is to recreate large landscapes even in the smallest place. Be careful when choosing the elements for your garden, because you don’t want to end up filling your ten by ten courtyard with huge rocks.

As a miniaturized landscape, the rocks in the garden would represent mountains and the ponds would represent lakes. A space filled with sand would represent an ocean. By that we assume that garden masters were looking to achieve a minimalistic approach, best represented by the phrase „less is more“.

The elements of time and space

One of the things westerners notice at first are the many portions of empty space in the garden. In fact, these spaces are an important feature in Japanese gardening. This space called ma, relates to the elements around it and that also surround it. The concepts of in and yo are of vital importance here, they are best known to the Western civilization by the Chinese names yin and yang. If you want to have something you have to start with having nothing. This is an idea quite difficult to understand, but it is a rule of thumb in Japanese gardening.

An important clue in the development of a garden is the concept of wabi and sabi. There’s no literal English translation for those words. Wabi is about uniqueness, or the essence of something; a close literal translation is solitary.

Sabi deals with the definition of time or the ideal image of something; the closest definition might be time strengthened character. Given the case, a cement lantern that might appear unique, would lack of that ideal image. Or an old rock covered in lichens would have no wabi if it’s just a round boulder. That’s why it is important to find that balance.

Ma and wabi/sabi are connected to the concepts of space and time. When it comes to seasons, the garden must show the special character of each one. Japanese garden lovers dedicate time to their gardens every season, unlike the western gardener who deserts in fall just to be seen again in spring.

A very relaxing view in spring is given by the bright green of new buds and the blossoms of the azaleas. In summer, the lush foliage in combination with the pond offer a powerful and fresh image. The vivid spectacle of the brilliant colors of dying leaves in fall are a prelude for the arrival of winter and its white shroud of snow.

The two most important gardening seasons in Japan are spring and winter. Japanese refer to the snow accumulated on braches as Sekku or snow blossoms. Yukimi, or the snow viewing lantern, is another typical element of the Japanese garden in winter. The sleep of the garden in winter is an important episode for our Japanese gardener, while for the western gardener spring is the beginning of the work at the garden. Maybe because of the eastern point of view as death like part of the life cycle, or perhaps the western fear to death.

About garden enclosures

Let’s see the garden as a microcosm of nature. If we’re looking for the garden to be a true retreat, we have to ’set it apart‘ from the outside world. Because of that, fences and gates are important components of the Japanese garden.

The fence and the gates have both symbolism and functionality. The worries and concerns of our daily life have to stay out of this separate world that becomes the garden. The fence protects us from the outside world and the gate is the threshold where we leave our daily worries and then prepare ourselves to confront the real world again.

The use of fences is based in the concept of hide/reveal or Miegakure. Fence styles are very simple and are put in combination with screen planting, thus not giving many clues of what hides inside. You can give a sample look of your garden by cutting a small window in the solid wall that encloses your garden if that’s the case. Sode-gaki, or sleeve fences, are fences attached to an architectural structure, that will only show a specific view of the garden from inside the house. Thus, we’re invited to get into the garden and enjoy it in its entirety. That’s what makes the true understanding of the garden, to lose in it our sense of time and self.

Basic Arrangements

Despite the fact that certain rules are applied to each individual garden, don’t think that there’s just one type of garden. There are three basic styles that differ by setting and purpose.

Hill and Pond Garden (Chisen-Kaiyu-skiki)

A China imported classic style. A pond or a space filled with raked gravel fronts a hill (or hills). This style always represents mountainous places and commonly makes use of vegetation indigenous to the mountains. Stroll gardens commonly use this style.

Flat Garden (Hiraniwa)

It derives from the use of open, flat spaces in front of temples and palaces for ceremonies. This is an appropriate style for contemplation and that represents a seashore area (with the use of the right plants). This is a style frequently used in courtyards.

Tea Gardens (Rojiniwa)

Function has a greater importance than form in this type of garden. The Roji or dewy path, is the main point of the garden, along with the pond and the gates. This would be the exception to the rule. The simple and sparse plantings give a rustic feeling to the garden.

Formality has to be taken in consideration

Hill and pond and flat styles may be shin (formal), gyo (intermediate) or so (informal). Formal styles were to be found usually at temples or palaces, intermediate styles were suitable for most residences, and the informal style was used in peasant huts and mountain retreats. The tea garden is the one that always fits in the informal style.

The garden components

Rocks (ishi in Japanese) are the main concern of the Japanese garden. If the stones are placed correctly, then the garden shows in a perfect balance. So here are shown the basic stone types and the rules for their positions.

The basic stones are the tall upright stone, the low upright stone, the curved stone, the reclining stone, and the horizontal stone. These must be usually set in triads although this doesn’t happen always. Two almost identical stones (by way of example, two tall verticals or two reclining stones), one a little quite smaller than the other, can be set together as male and female, but the use of them in threes, fives, and sevens is more frequent.

We have to keep away from the Three Bad Stones. These are the Diseased stone (having a withered or misshapen top), the Dead stone (an obviously vertical one used as a horizontal, or vice versa, like the placement of a dead body), and the Pauper Stone (a stone having no connection to the several other ones in the garden). Use only one stone of each of the basic types in any cluster (the rest have to be smaller, modest stones also known as throwaway stones). Stones can be placed as sculptures, set against a background in a two-dimensional way, or given a purpose, such as a stepping stone or a bridge.

When used as stepping stones they should be between one and three inches above the soil, yet solid underfoot, as if rooted into the ground. They can be put in straight lines, offset for left foot, right foot (referred as chidori or plover, after the tracks the shore bird leaves), or set in sets of twos, threes, fours, or fives (and any combination thereof).

The pathway stands for the passage through life, and even particular stones by the path may have meaning. A much wider stone placed across the path tells us to put two feet here, stopping to enjoy the view. There are numerous stones for specific places. When observing the basic design principles, we can notice the exact character of the Japanese garden.

Water (mizu in Japanese) plays an important part in the composition of the Japanese garden because of Japan’s abundant rainfall. Water can be represented even with a raked gravel area instead of water. A rushing stream can be represented by placing flat river stones closely together. In the tea garden, where there isn’t any stream or pond, water plays the most important role in the ritual cleansing at the chozubachi, or water basin. As the water fills and empties from the shishi-odoki, or deer scare, the clack of bamboo on rock helps mark the passage of time.

The flow of water, the way it sounds and looks, brings to mind the continual passage of time. A bridge crossing the water stream is often used as a landscaping complement. Bridges denote a journey, just as pathways do. Hashi, in japanese, can mean bridge or edge. Bridges are the symbolic pass from one world into another, a constant theme in Japanese art.

Plants or Shokobutsu may play a secondary role to the stones in the garden, but they are a primary concern in the design too. Stones represent what remains unchanged, so trees, shrubs, and perennials have to represent the passing of seasons. Earlier garden styles used plants to make up poetic connotations or to correct geomantic issues, but these have little meaning today.

As the the Heian style diminished under the Zen influence, perennials and grasses fell out of use. So, for a long time, there were only a few plants that tradition allowed for the garden. However, in modern Japan, designers are again widening the spectrum of materials used. It is highly recommended that native plants are chosen for the garden, because showy exotic plants are not in good taste.

Be aware that native plants are used in the garden, because it is in bad taste to use showy exotic plants. Although pines, cherries and bamboo immediately remind us of Japanese gardens, we encourage you to use native plants of your locality that you can find pleasing. If we choose evergreens as the main plant theme and combine it with deciduous material that may provide seasonal blooms or foliage color we can recreate the look of the Japanese garden.

Now the next thing taken in consideration in a Japanese garden are the ornaments or Tenkebutsu. Stone lanterns are, for westerners, a typical impression of Japanese gardens.Stone lanterns are not important components of the Japanese garden. The reason is that ornaments are subjected to the garden’s design. Lanterns, stupas, and basins are just architectural complements added when a point of visual interest is necessary to the design.

A good way to finish yor garden design could be a well-placed lantern. The three main styles (although with many variations) are: The Kasuga style lantern, is a very formal one featuring a stone base. In the Oribe style lantern, unlike the Kasuga style, the pedestal is underneath the ground. The Yukimi or Snow-Viewing lantern is set on short legs instead of a pedestal. Consider the formality of your garden setting to choose the appropriate lantern.

When possible, elements from outside the garden can be included in it. For instance, you can work a far away mountain including the scenery in your design, framing it with the stones and plants existing in the garden.
The borrowed scenery (shakkei in Japanese) can be: Far (as in a far away mountain); near (a tree just outside the fence); High (an element seen above the fence) or low (like a component seen below a fence or through a window in the fence).

As much as it is perceived to contradict our sense of enclosure, it reminds us of how all things are interconnected.

The feel of your garden

The Japanese garden is a subtle place full of contradictions and imperatives. Where firmly established rules are broken with other rules. If you meet the Buddha on the road, you must kill him is a Zen paradox that recommends not to stick so tightly to rules, and the same goes for Japanese gardens.

When building a Japanese garden, don’t get too attached to traditions that hold little meaning for you. It would have no function to recreate a Buddhist saints garden. This also applies to trying to remember the meaning of stone placements, as this method is no longer used in Japan, or even in the United States, due to the lack of meaning for us in the modern world.

That’s why we have selected a few gardening suggestions that do hold relevance and integrate them into a garden. These three ideas on gardening will give direction to achieve perfect results.

First

The overall setting of the garden should always be right for the location, not the other way around.

Second

The stones should be placed first, next the trees, and then the shrubs.

Third

Get used to the concepts of shin, gyo, and so. This is of great help to start working on the garden.

Have in mind that the real Japanese gardens are the traditional ones in Japan. What we can do in America is to shape a garden in the Japanese style. Rikyu once said about the perfect Roji: „Thick green moss, all pure and sunny warm“. In other words, techniques are not as important as the feeling you evoke in your garden. Said in other way, the feeling is more important than techniques.

Chandigarh – The Beautiful Garden City of Northern India

Planning a trip to India? Welcome to the city of gardens – Chandigarh – states capital and a Union Territory*. Chandigarh, designed by the famous architect Le Corbusier, is a rare example of a seamless blend of modernisation and the nature’s preservation. Apparently it is the only city where the two entirely opposite concepts – serenity and city – come together to add to the beauty of the city.

Trees and plants are an equal part of the construction plans as the buildings and roads. Keeping up to its name of ‚The City Beautiful‘ country’s first planned city, built in 1953, is a rich, prosperous, spic and span, green city which boasts of various gardens and parks that not only add to the greens of the city but also helps in keeping the pollution levels in check.

Some of the best and famous gardens in Chandigarh are as follows. These gardens are a must visit for anyone and everyone.

1. Rose Garden

Zakir Rose Garden, Asia’s largest rose garden, is spread across area of 30 acres and boasts of 50,000 rose-bushes with 1600 varieties of roses planted in a beautifully carved out lawns and flower beds. ‚Smell the roses‘ is an apt description of what you can do here. In fact the collection includes not only natural varieties but also many hybrid varieties cultivated through tissue culture.

And some of them are rare varieties of rose. Beautifully manicured lawns with the heady fragrance of roses make it an ideal spot for picnic or romantic getaway for the couples. The garden was planned and conceived in 1967 under the expert guidance of Dr M S Randhawa because of his prolific interest in horticulture and fondness for flowers and is named after India’s president Zakir Hussain.

The best time to visit this garden is between February and March. The famous Rose festival is celebrated here with a great pomp and show either in February end or beginning of March. It is touted as one of the biggest celebrations in the city and more than 20,000 people visit this festival.

2. Pinjore gardens

Also known as Yadavindra gardens, Pinjore gardens lies on the foothills of lower Shivalik ranges and is 20 kilometres from Chandigarh and 15 kilometres from Panchkula. One of the most popular and fascinating Mughal gardens makes for a perfect picnic spot with manicured lawns and the weekends are the best time to visit these gardens as the fountains are switched on and the lights reflecting on the palaces makes a beautiful picture.

The gardens boasts of flagged pathways running to the outer reaches of the creeper covered wall and various trees like Palm, mango, shapely cypresses, and dense groves of trees give a mysterious look to the garden.

The garden was designed by Nawab Fadia Khan – foster brother of Aurangazeb the Mughal emperor – and kept the design on the classic Charbagh pattern with a water body in the centre. After the death of Fadia Khan the garden was neglected until the Maharaja of Patiala (Punjab) Yadavindra Singh restored the gardens to its present glory hence the name Yadavindra gardens.

3. Garden of fragrance

Chandigarh’s garden of fragrance is a must visit garden of the city and is located at the southern side of Hibiscus garden in sector 36. Famous for its distinctive aromatic and fragrant plants, the garden boasts of plants like damask rose, Queen of the night, Motia, Champa, Haar Shingar, Hennaand varieties of Jasmine. Owing to its fragrant plants and green manicured lawns the garden of fragrance is a fabulous picnic spot. There are tracks for the fitness freaks to enjoy their walks or daily workouts.

4. Chandigarh Bougainvillea Park

Chandigarh Bougainvillea Park, celebrated for its colour and beauty, the variety of bougainvillea, attracts tourists from all over the country and world. The garden brags about 65 different types of bougainvillea in various hues and colours which is a mesmerising sight.

Situated in sector 3 Chandigarh, the park was first opened to the public in 1976 and has been captivating the tourists‘ attention since then. Beautifully enshrouding the bowers, arches, pavilions, and arcades are creepers comprehensive area in the park. The celebrated bougainvillea show is organised here to celebrate the beauty and variety of bougainvillea.

Enthralling the visitors since it was first opened to the public the park is a pride of Chandigarh.

5. Terraced flower gardens

Located in the sector 33, Chandigarh — the terrace garden was set up in 1979 covering the area of 10 acres. Lighted musical fountain is the main attraction of this garden. The popular annual Chrysanthemum show is held here. With some exquisite varieties of flowering plants the atmosphere is tranquil and residents are often come here to enjoy the cool breeze and to feast their eyes on the surrounding beauty.

* A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or Lieutenant-Governor for each territory.

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